Holling, C. S. 1978.

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Holling, C. S. 1978. Adaptive environmental assessment and management. (Editor) London: John Wiley & Sons.

Manejo adaptativo (MA) o manejo adaptativo de recursos (MAR), es un proceso estructurado, iterativo, para la toma de decisiones óptimas en contextos de incertidumbre, con la meta de reducir ésta paulatinamente, mediante un sistema de monitoría. En esta forma el proceso de toma de decisiones maximiza simultáneamente uno o más de los objetivos del manejo de recursos y, ya sea en forma pasiva o activa, acumula la información necesaria para estructurar posteriores esquemas de manejo de los recursos. MAR se caracteriza frecuentente como la versión formal de la estrategia vernácula de aprender haciendo. MAR también se ha homologado con dos conceptos aparenemente disímiles: (i) el proceso dialéctico de planificación → evaluación → revisión → planificación implementado por Mao Zedong durante la revolución cultural del decenio 1966-76 y (ii) el proceso evolutivo orgánico, también de naturaleza dialéctica, derivado de la genética mendeliana como freno y de la selección natural darwiniana como acicate.

replicación genética ← mutaciones y cambios externos → selección natural → evolución y adaptación → replicación genética

Citas y referencias

Bibligrafía sobre MAR

Tomada de: Lance Gunderson y C. S. Holling. 1996. Concepts of environmental management. Curso dictado en la University of Florida
  1. Clark, W. C., D. D. Jones and C. S. Holling. 1979. Lessons for ecological policy design: A case study of ecosystem management. Ecol. Mod. 7 1-53.
  2. Davis, S. M. and J. C. Ogden. 1994. Everglades, The Ecosystem and Its Restoration. St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, Florida.
  3. ESSA. 1982. Review and Evaluation of Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management. Adaptive Environmental Assessment Workshop, Parksville, B.C. ESSA Envirnomental and Social Systems Analysts Ltd.
  4. Gunderson, L. H., C. S. Holling and S. S. Light. 1994. Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions. Columbia University Press, New York.
  5. Hilborn, R., C. S. Holling and C. J. Walters. 1980. Managing the unknown: approaches to ecological policy design. Amer. Inst. Biol. Sci. (1980):237pp.
  6. Hilborn, R. and M. Ledbetter. 1979. Analysis of the British Columbia salmon purse-seine fleet: Dynamics of movement. J. Fish. Res. 36 (4):384-391.
  7. Holling, C. S. 1973. Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Ann. Rev. of Ecol. and Syst. 4 1-23.
  8. Holling, C. S. 1978. Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management. John Wiley and Sons, London.
  9. Holling, C. S. 1978. Myths of ecological stability: Resilience and the problem of failure. in: Studies in Crisis Management, C. F. Smart and W. T. Stanbury, ed. Butterworth & Co., Montreal.
  10. Holling, C. S. 1980. Adapting to uncertainty in an unforgiving society. The Lindbergh Lecture Series in Ecology (1980):19pp.
  11. Holling, C. S. 1980. Forest insect, forest fires and resilience. in: Fire Regimes and Ecosystem Properties, H. Mooney, J. M. Bonnicksen, N. L. Christensen, J. E. Lotan and W. A. Reiners, ed. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report,
  12. Holling, C. S. 1981. Highlights of adaptive environmental assessment and management. R-23. Institute of Resource Ecology.
  13. Holling, C. S. 1982. Predicting the unpredictable. Is it possible to identify the variable that trigger surprise and change? UNESCO Courier. (1982):60-62.
  14. Holling, C. S. 1984. The "budworm/forest" model and forest management policy. Rapport d'enquete et d'audience publique no. 16 (1984):
  15. Holling, C. S. 1986. The Resilience of Ecosystems; Local Surprise and Global Change. in: Sustainable Development of the Biosphere, W. C. Clark and R. E. Munn, ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  16. Holling, C. S. 1986. The resilience of terrestrial ecosystems: local surprise and global change. in: Sustainable Development of the Biosphere, W. C. Clark and R. E. Munn, ed. IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
  17. Holling, C. S. 1987. Simplifying the Complex; The paradigms of ecological function and structure. European Journal of Operational Research 30 139-146.
  18. Holling, C. S. 1989. Integrating science for sustainable development. Journal of Business Administration 19 (1 & 2):73-83.
  19. Holling, C. S. 1992. Cross-scale morphology, geometry and dynamics of ecosystems. Ecol. Mono. 62 (4):447-502.
  20. Holling, C. S. 1993. Investing in research for sustainability. Ecol. Appl. 3 (4):552-555.
  21. Holling, C. S. 1994. New science and new investments for a sustainable biosphere. in: Investing in Natural Capital, A. M. Jansson, M. Hammer, C. Folke and R. Costanza, ed. Island Press, Washington D.C.
  22. Holling, C. S. 1994. What Barriers? What Bridges? in: Barriers and Bridges in Renewing Ecosystems and Institutions, L. H. Gunderson, C. S. Holling and S. S. Light, ed. Columbia University Press, New York.
  23. Holling, C. S. and S. Bocking. 1990. Surprise and opportunity: In evolution, in ecosystems, in society. in: Planet Under Stress, C. Mungall and D. J. McLaren, ed. Oxford University Press, Toronto.
  24. Holling, C. S. and A. D. Chambers. 1973. Resource Science: The Nurture of an Infant. Bioscience 23 (1):13-20.
  25. Holling, C. S., Jones D. D. and W. C. Clark. 1976. Ecological policy design: a case study of forest and pest management. IIASA 1 (1976):139-158.
  26. Holling, C. S., G. B. Dantizig and C. Winkler. 1986. Determining optimal policies for ecosystems. Systems Analysis in Forestry and Forest Industries. 21 (1986):453-473.
  27. Holling, C. S., L. H. Gunderson and C. J. Walters. 1994. The Structure and Dynamics of the Everglades System: Guidelines for Ecosystem Restoration. in: Everglades: The Ecosystem and Its Restoration, S. Davis and J. Ogden, ed. St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach.
  28. Holling, C. S., D. D. Jones and W. C. Clark. 1979. Ecological policy design: a case study of forest and pest management. in: Pest Management, G. A. Norton and C. S. Holling, ed. Pergamon Press, Oxford.
  29. Lee, B. J., H. A. Regier and D. J. Rapport. 1982. Ten ecosystem approaches to the planning and management of the Great Lakes. J. Great Lakes Res. 8 (3):505-519.
  30. Lee, K. 1991. Rebuilding confidence: Salmon, science, and law in the Columbia Basin. Environmental Law 21 745-805.
  31. Lee, K. N. 1987. Achilles' Shield: Models, Management, and Microcosms. Notes for keynote talk and lectures at Banff Centre School of Management, Dec. 6-7, 1987.
  32. Lee, K. N. 1989. Columbia River Basin - experimenting with sustainability. Environment 31 (6):7-11, 30-33.
  33. Lee, K. N. 1991. Errand into the wilderness. Discussion Paper Kyoto University & University of Washington.
  34. Lee, K. N. 1993. Compass and Gyroscope: Integrating Science and Politics for the Environment. Island Press, Washington, D.C.
  35. Lee, K. N. and J. Lawrence. 1986. Adaptive Management: Learning from the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Environmental Law 16: 431-460.
  36. Ludwig, D., R. Hilborn and C. Walters. 1993. Uncertainty, resource exploitation, and conservation: Lessons from history. Science 260 17 & 36.
  37. Ludwig, D. and C. J. Walters. 1981. Measurement Errors and Uncertainty in Parameter Estimates for Stock and Recruitment. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38 (6):711-720.
  38. Smith, A. D. M. 1979. Adaptive Management of Renewable Resources with Uncertainty Dynamics. Ph.D., University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.
  39. Smith, A. D. M. and C. J. Walters. 1981. Adaptive management of stock recruitment systems. Can. J. Fish. Aquatic Science 38 690-703.
  40. Sonntag, N. C. 1987. Policy Excercises: An Approach to Developing Policy on the Effects of Climate Warming in Canada.
  41. Walters, C. J. 1981. Optimum escapements in the face of alternative recruitment hypotheses. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38 (6):678-689.
  42. Walters, C. J. 1986. Adaptive management of renewable resources. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, New York.
  43. Walters, C. J. and P. Cahoon. 1985. Evidence of Decreasing Spatial Diversity in British Columbia Salmon Stocks. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 42 (5):1033-1037.
  44. Walters, C. J. and L. H. Gunderson. 1994. Screening Water Policies for Ecological Restoration. in: Everglades: The Ecosystem and Its Restoration, S. M. Davis and J. C. Ogden, ed. St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, Fla.
  45. Walters, C. J., L. H. Gunderson and C. S. Holling. 1992. Experimental Policies for water management in the Everglades. 2 (2):189-202.
  46. Walters, C. J. and R. Hilborn. 1978. Ecological optimization and adaptive management. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 9:157-188.
  47. Walters, C. J. and R. Hillborn. 1976. Adaptive control of fishing systems. Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada 33:145-159.
  48. Walters, C. J. and C. S. Holling. 1984. Resilience and adaptability in ecological management systems: Why do policy models fail? International Series on Applied Systems Analysis 13 (1984):
  49. Walters, C. J. and C. S. Holling. 1990. Large scale management experiments and learning by doing. Ecology.
  50. Walters, C. J. and D. Ludwig. 1981. Effects of Measurement Errors and Uncertainty in Parameter Estimates for Stock and Recruitment. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38 (6):704-710.
  51. Walters, C. J. and B. Ridell. 1986. Multiple Objectives in Salmon Management: The Chinook Sport Fishery in the Strait of Georgia, B.C. The Northwest Environmental Journal 2 (1):1-15.